Defending five-time champion Hamilton of Mercedes had appeared to be on course for his record seventh Canadian pole until the final laps, when he was outpaced by Vettel in the dying seconds.
Hamilton won with the 50th Canadian Grand Prix having started from second behind Vettel and remained in that position.
Ferrari has renewed hope going into the Canadian Grand Prix following a successful second practice run on Friday.
"We also avoid the red, soft tyre in the race because we managed to go through with the medium".
"Obviously there was a reason why we were able to put the vehicle on pole today".
"I feel so very, very happy for the team", Vettel said.
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Buckingham Palace denied the rumors at the time, but they still triggered major publicity for Trump and his properties . Royal fans are convinced the Queen sent a secret message via her choice of tiara earlier this week.
"Lewis was a bit quicker throughout the race, but we were able to stay ahead".
Charles Leclerc, in the second Ferrari, had a slow run in the final sector on his final lap and ended up nearly four tenths slower than Hamilton in third place.
Daniel Ricciardo was a superb fourth for Renault as he looks well placed to get at least the six points he needs to pass the 1,000 mark in F1.
"The whole of Maranello is throwing everything at it to try and give us a better auto and make it better races to come". "I anticipate this weekend we will be stronger than we have been in the past".
"I don't know why he would say it now, and not when he first started", Norris said.
While Magnussen escaped unscathed, his auto was wrecked It was also a bitterly disappointing day for Racing Point with both Sergio Perez and local hope Lance Stroll failing to advance out of the first round.
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The polesitter has won the last four Canadian Grand Prix races. "Sometimes you do these races and I could probably do two or three races in a row and Formula One should not be like that". It is very bumpy, very rough.
Vettel was leading from pole position with a little more than 20 laps remaining.
The British driver was the quickest man on the track in the third round of qualifying, leading the pack by two tenths of a second before Vettel's ideal final lap.
Montreal native Stroll failed to make it past the first round of qualifying for the 11th straight time, capping off a frustrating day in front of his hometown fans by finishing 18th.
"This is one of the tracks where you need to dare going very close to the walls in numerous places", he told the post-qualifying news conference.
But the Red Bull Racing driver's final flyer was abandoned by Magnussen's smash, eliminating him in 11th.
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Meanwhile, the infamous Wall of Champions claimed another victim when Kevin Magnussen lost control and hit the barrier, sending his Haas careening across the track and into the opposite wall. Their qualifying program begins at 6 pm BST on Saturday while the race coverage starts at 5.30 pm BST on Sunday.