Odinga charges that President Uhuru Kenyatta is not legitimate because he won elections past year through fraud.
"Kenyan authorities should urgently obey a court order to either release or produce Miguna Miguna in court", said Otsieno Namwaya, Africa researcher at Human Rights Watch.
When veteran opposition challengerRaila Odinga chose to stage his on January 30, few had any idea that the mood in Nairobi would become one of toxic intolerance - intolerance of the opposition, of the media and of the rule of law.
Miguna refused to enter a plea, saying his case should be heard in a court in Nairobi, privately-owned Citizen Television reported.
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"Being present and consenting to the administration of the oath to commit a capital offense namely treason contrary to section 59 (a) of the Penal Code..." read part of the charge sheet.
Campaigning lawyer Miguna Miguna was arrested on Friday in a dawn raid on his home.
A journalist at the court in Kajiado said Miguna had appeared at Tuesday's hearing.
The government ignored court orders to restore transmission for the stations and to release opposition activist Miguna Miguna.
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Odinga's supporters protested against the charges, blocking roads and clashing with police in the western city of Kisumu, a Reuters witness said. He said the journalists chose to spend the night in the newsroom to avoid meeting the police.
Also on Tuesday, the government suspended the passport of David Ndii, an opposition strategist, according to a letter he posted on Twitter.
Kenyatta won the August election, and won the repeat election in October as well after Odinga boycotted it, complaining it would not be fair.
Two Kenyan television stations have resumed broadcasting after being taken off air for plans to show a rally held by the country's opposition leader.
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Judge Kimaru on Monday 5 February sent an order to Inspector General of police Joseph Boinnet and the Directorate of Criminal Investigations (DCI) to arraign Miguna in court at 2 pm.