The official said Russian Federation typically flies Open Skies missions in the United States over command infrastructure, key locations and other critical infrastructure.
"The aircraft will be large and may fly directly over the U.S. Capitol", the alert said, per CNN.
A Russian Air Force jet reportedly flew over the White House, US Capitol, Pentagon and many other government buildings in Washington on Wednesday (9 August).
Pentagon spokesman Dan Gaffney said he could not confirm the path of the plane until its mission is over.
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US military personnel were allowed on the plane for observation and the plane has the capability of gathering intelligence, one person familiar with the flight told CNN.
Although the targets of surveillance were somewhat out of the ordinary, the flights themselves are relatively routine and are created to promote openness among nations and their militaries.
The Capitol Police issued an alert prior to the flight noting that an "authorized low-altitude aircraft" would be passing over without announcing its origins.
According to flight data obtained from aircraft monitoring website Flightradar24, the Russian aircraft, a Tupolev TU-154M, took off from Dayton, Ohio, Wednesday morning.
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The treaty - which was introduced after the Cold War allows 34 states to conduct unarmed flights over other countries.
The aircraft on the ramp at Wright-Patterson AFB is a Tu-154 from the government of Russian Federation which is conducting an Open Skies observation flight over the USA on Thursday and Friday.
A US official told ABC News that Russians often fly Open Skies missions over key locations.
He said the Russians had satellites they could use if they wanted to spy on British installations. On the Russian territory, a joint mission under the Open Skies Treaty was conducted jointly by the United Kingdom and Norway.
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The entire territory of a nation is fair game, although nations get advanced notice of flight plans.